As a normotensive control, we used pregnant human angiotensinogen transgenic mice mated with male human angiotensin transgenic mice. Another line of hypertension model mice, called Tsukuba hypertensive mice (THM), carries both human renin and human angiotensinogen transgenes and suffers from moderate and chronic hypertension, 20–30 mm Hg higher than that of wild-type mice [33, 34]. The current findings showed similar changes during pregnancy between humans and mice, which provides a basis for preclinical studies for human diseases during pregnancy. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com. The NREMS episode duration during the light phase during late pregnancy was shorter than that before pregnancy (F = 3.796, df = 4, p = .014; Figure 2E). It might seem obvious, but like humans, only a female hamster can become pregnant. In PAH mice, the number of dye leakages was 4.5 ± 0.96 (mean ± SEM). Some women appear to breeze through pregnancy with no problems at all. International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. by YourMortalEmily on Sun 12 Apr 2020, 2:24 pm. They can stand on the hind legs, as well, and are supported by the tail, which also provides balance while in motion. Among a variety of inbred mice strains, C57BL/6 mice have been well characterized as a common platform for a variety of physiological and pathological characteristics, including sleep/wakefulness. Another limitation of the present study was the modest number of mice examined. The wake episode duration during the light phase during late pregnancy was shorter than that before and after pregnancy (F = 4.270, df = 4, p = .008; Figure 2B). Brussé IA, Peters NC, Steegers EA, Duvekot JJ, Visser GH. (D) NREMS δ density before, during early and mid pregnancy, and postpartum. There have been several reports on increased REMS by prolactin [52], but peptide hormones may be less permeable to the brain and less influential on brain functions compared with gonadal steroid hormones. For REMS, the power density at 4 and 5 Hz during late pregnancy was higher than that before pregnancy (F = 4.865, df = 4, p = .004 for 4 Hz; F = 10.561, df = 4, p < .0001 for 5 Hz; Figure 3C). We observed no difference in the REMS episode duration (Figure 5H) or REMS episode number (Figure 5I). (D) Representative daily EEG spectrogram during mid and late pregnancy and postpartum in a PAH mouse. Since there were many epochs that we could not properly classify into wake or NREMS during late pregnancy, we evaluated the sleep/wakefulness of PAH mice except for those in late pregnancy. The number of wake episodes during late pregnancy was higher than that during any other periods (F = 10.408, df = 4, p < .0001; Figure 2C). Unfortunately, if you got a pregnant mouse from the pet store she may be quite young and may not have the best mothering abilities. EEG spectrum analysis during the course of pregnancy in PAH mice, except for during late pregnancy. However, blood pressures higher than the upper limit of cerebral vascular autoregulation can lead to disruption of the BBB and vasogenic edema, eventually resulting in hypertensive encephalopathy [39]. There was no difference in the NREMS episode duration (Figure 8E) or the NREMS episode number (Figure 8F). Studies have found that some mouse models of autism make fewer squeaks than controls do. Resident Physician in Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery. The same is true of laboratory mice. n = 6; *p < .05. The pregnant mouse uterus undergoes dynamic changes over the course of gestation to support development of the conceptus. (D–F) Total time spent in NREM sleep (NREMS) (D), NREMS episode duration (E), and NREMS episode number (F). Mice were housed under a 12:12-hr light/dark cycle. Lastly, we examined the sleep/wakefulness of nonpregnant female THM. Hormonal changes underlie the first component to appear in the pregnant mouse female, nest building; however the sound of pups can also induce nest … PAH mice and nonpregnant THM were maintained on a C57BL/6 background. All mice were allowed at least 4 days of recovery from surgery and habituation to the recording conditions for at least 3 days. During the dark phase, the wake episode duration before pregnancy was significantly longer than that during mid and late pregnancy and after pregnancy (F = 4.898, df = 4, p = .004; Figure 2B). In addition, the administration of olmesartan alleviated sleep/wake behavior abnormalities of PAH mice during late pregnancy such as general slowing of EEG, loss of the circadian change in sleep/wakefulness, and a drastic reduction in REMS. Pups born to mothers exposed to fluoxetine during pregnancy make fewer and briefer squeaks than those born to mothers who had no exposure to the drug, the new study found. Five THM and eight wild-type mice. In addition to the physical effects of the growing uterus and embryos during pregnancy, hormonal changes may affect sleep/wake behaviors during pregnancy. The REMS episode duration during the light phase before pregnancy was longer than that during mid, late, and after pregnancy (F = 8.652, df = 4, p < .0001; Figure 2H). Adopting 6 Mice (Vlog #5) - Duration: 6:59. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Mom and You. Mice are social and care better for their young when they are housed with friends. If she doesn't care for them and they are less than 10 days of age, it is extremely difficult to save the babies. In summary, the present study revealed a similarity in the sleep changes during pregnancy between humans and mice [6, 7], which provides a basis for future studies on sleep regulation in animal models for human diseases during pregnancy. (D–F) Total time spent in NREMS (D), NREMS episode duration (E), and NREMS episode number (F) before, during, and after pregnancy. Olmesartan treatment did not alter the total time, episode duration, or episode number of wakefulness, NREMS, or REMS in male wild-type mice (data not shown). Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation in patients without hypertension prior to pregnancy [19–22]. In particular, wild-derived strains benefit from as little handling as possible. Did you find this useful? Olmesartan (ChemScene) was dissolved in sterile water containing 0.01% NaHCO3 and 0.01% KHCO3 and administered at a dose of 15 mg/L (equivalent to 3 mg/kg BW) in drinking water from pregnant day 13 to day 19 to PAH mice. The male mouse has a larger territory than a female mouse. Sleep/wake behaviors of THM. Consistent with the short total wake time during late pregnancy, the daily time spent in NREMS during late pregnancy was longer than that before and during early pregnancy (F = 8.620, df = 4, p = .0001; Figure 2D). Pregnant does will exhibit increased nesting behavior as the day of kindling approaches. In a cage devoid of any enrichment (a fancy term for mouse toys), many strains display unfavorable behavior, including barbering, reduced eating and reduced breeding. She may be more likely to abandon or even cannibalize her babies. Epochs containing movement artifacts were included in the state totals but excluded from subsequent spectral analysis. n = 6. For group comparisons among PAH, olmesartan-administered PAH, and THM, total δ density and REMS parameters were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey’s test. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. The duration of the REMS episode decreased during mid and late pregnancy and postpartum compared with that before pregnancy (F = 13.474, df = 4, p < .0001; Figure 2H). A doe giving birth should never be disturbed. However, postpartum mice showed significantly longer total wake time during the light phase than before pregnancy (F = 3.271, df = 4, p = .025; Figure 2A). Periodic discharges of EEG during late pregnancy in PAH mice. The total REMS time of female THM was shorter than that of female wild-type mice (Figure 8G). We thank all Yanagisawa/Funato lab and IIIS members for discussion and comments on this manuscript and Go Taniguchi for his comments on spike-wave seizures. The total REMS time of PAH mice was only 4.3 ± 1.9 min (mean ± SEM), but olmesartan-administered PAH mice showed a significantly longer REMS time (F = 17.230, df = 2, p < .0001, Figure 7C). The EEG spectrum analysis of REMS showed pregnancy-induced changes at 6 and 7 Hz from the early stages of pregnancy, although the physiological significance of this finding is not clear. However, behavior of the offspring was altered. We also examined the sleep/wake behaviors of PAH mice and nonpregnant female THM. Brunner DP, Münch M, Biedermann K, Huch R, Huch A, Borbély A. Takimoto E, Ishida J, Sugiyama F, Horiguchi H, Murakami K, Fukamizu A. Hrabě de Angelis M, Nicholson G, Selloum Met al. Analyses were carried out using two-sided tests and a statistical significance level of 0.05. Changes in types of behaviour and how long mice spend doing particular behaviours can indicate that a mouse is in pain, or distress, or is suffering. Importantly, the sleep/wake behaviors of postpartum mice were similar to nonpregnant mice, despite lactation and increased prolactin and oxytocin. The sleep/wakefulness in each 20-s epoch was classified as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (NREMS), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (REMS), or wakefulness using MatLab (MathWorks)-based semiautomated staging system followed by visual inspection. The effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia in cardiovascular gene expression is modulated by age in a mice model of sleep apnea. Analyses were carried out using two-sided tests and a decreased total REM sleep time increased. Use Committee of the conceptus reported to reduce wakefulness [ 51 ] has also been reported reduce! Nonpregnant THM were maintained on a C57BL/6 background the REMS episode duration ( Figure 2H ) wake episode were... 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