When children are able to practise and share aspects of their culture, they feel good about themselves and learn about and appreciate our human similarities and differences. We pay our respects to them and their cultures, Cross cultural medicine. Many cultures have explanations for the cause of mental health issues, such as possession by an evil spirit or punishment for wrongdoings in a past life. Ideally, everyone, regardless of race or ethnicity will receive the same medical care. 6 psychiatric disorder, psychiatric distress, sub-clinical paranoia and lower self-reported life satisfaction. Holy days Hindus do not observe a specific day of worship, although some days of the week may be associated with particular deities. Consent for certain diagnostic and therapeutic interventions may be needed from extended family members. Asking older relatives - such as grandparents, aunts, or uncles - about the way your family has lived in the past can enrich your own sense of self-identity. They rented a room from a friend. As an employer, you can only control so much. Dr. Mackey is a psychologist who works with a very diverse patient population. Why not try our helpful virtual assistant Sam? The speed of cultural evolution varies. Authorised by the Australian Government, Canberra. For example, some patients are unaware of germ theory and may instead believe in fatalism, a. Such skills can be a compass for exploring, respecting  and using cultural similarities and differences to improve quality of care and patient outcomes. throughout Australia, and their continuing connection to land, sea and community. Caring for Kids New to Canada is a resource for health professionals. In other cultures, people openly express moderately painful feelings. Helpful tools and resources are available from other sources. Health Beliefs. As a result the culture will either positively or negatively affect mental health and wellbeing. Any questions about listing your organisation on Head to Health? These conditions can influence the health and well being of you and your community. Read more about looking after your wellbeing on our meaningful life pages. Even when you think you understand one culture, it will have evolved or you will have identified exceptions. You might expect a 26-year-old mother to make a decision regarding her child’s treatment alone. Mental health issues carry a stigma in some cultures, resulting in feelings of fear and shame, and can prevent people experiencing these issues -  or their carers and families - from seeking help. I play piano and sing. How company culture can impact on employee health and wellbeing Health and wellbeing are states affected by a number of variables, including a person’s physical, financial, psychological and social status. Generalizing specific characteristics of one culture can be helpful, but be careful not to over-generalize. It is constantly evolving. It’s in the personality, leadership style, values, systems and behaviours native to the place where you go to work. You may wish to complete two modules in particular: Cross-Cultural Communication and Parenting Across Cultures. Sh… Along with other determinants of health and disease, culture helps to define: Culture also affects health in other ways, such as: Health care providers are more likely to have positive interactions with patients and provide better care if they understand what distinguishes their patients’ cultural values, beliefs and practices from their own. Negotiate a treatment plan based on shared understanding and agreement. Developing a guide to help health professionals understand cultural preferences and characteristics around the world would be a mammoth undertaking. Minority individuals older than age 65 have higher rates of disease and disability when compared with Caucasian men and women of the same age. People from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds often find great value and meaning in maintaining activities that align with their cultural background. Key Words: Child; Culture; Health; Holistic care; Nursing; Transcultural INTRODUCTION A child is born as a member of a family and society, as well as of a certain culture. A person’s attitude to mental health may be influenced by their cultural background. Humans are cultural beings. Understanding and influencing the culture of an organisation Being disconnected from your cultural heritage can lead you to question who you really are and where you belong. © Head to Health acknowledges Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the traditional owners of country Perception of the amount of control individuals have in preventing and controlling disease. Read more about cultural competence, including specific strategies for delivering culturally competent care. Being aware of and negotiating such differences are skills known as ‘cultural competence’. Hypothesis What patients and health care providers believe about the causes of disease. What should you know about mental health conditions and disorders? In some cultures, stoicism is the norm, even in the face of severe pain. This diplomat had arranged visas to Germany and provided a car with diplomatic license plates and a skillful driver, who drove them to the safest airport. The degree to which pain should be investigated or treated may differ. Consider how your own cultural beliefs, values and behaviours may affect interactions with patients. Webinar: Mind the Gap! Many of the differences in risks have to do with what those ethnicities tend to eat, whether they tend to … One night, her mother suddenly arrived to take the child away under cover of darkness. If you suspect an interaction has been adversely affected by cultural bias – your own or your patient’s – consider seeking help. It could lead to depression, withdrawal, fatigue and isolation. Health beliefs and values vary between cultures and individuals within those cultures. Children often struggle with being ‘between cultures’– balancing the ‘old’ and the ‘new’. She confides, with some prompting, that she discussed treatment options with her husband and mother-in-law, and together they have arrived at the best solution. Perceptions of death, dying and who should be involved. They could be healthy with their disease as long as they could fulfill their social role responsibilities. Essentially, it dictates whether people selectively present symptoms in a “culturally appropriate” way that won’t reflect badly on them. Another metaphor is of religion as a vessel or jug, the spiritual contents of which can become spoiled or adulterated by other belief systems. The creative expression of culture can improve mental health. COVID-19 support: information and resources, Bushfire ongoing impact: see all available resources, Australian Government Department of Health logo with link to Australian Government Department of Health website, Go back to About (currently in What is Head to Health? Primary socialisation involves teaching basic care skills as well as social skills Secondary socialisation Secondary socialisation occurs from later childhood onwards and continues to the end of an individual’s life. Use of direct versus indirect communication. Perhaps it was my Christian upbringing that influenced my interest in exploring the wider impact of spiritual beliefs and practices on people’s mental wellbeing and their engagement with life. A child may compensate for a parent’s debility. Still, being familiar with characteristics of collectivistic and individualistic cultures is useful (see Table 1) because it helps practitioners to ‘locate’ where a family falls within their cultural continuum and to personalize patient care. This perspective allows care providers to ask about various beliefs or sources of care specifically, and to incorporate new awareness into diagnosis and treatment planning. One way of thinking about cultures is whether they are primarily ‘collectivist’ or ‘individualist’. Communication styles differ. Meeting these needs is essential, and if we don’t have enough money to do so, our wellbeing suffers.Beyond that, as Tom Rath suggests in his book, Wellbeing, “money can increase our short-term happiness by giving us more control over how we spend our time.” Living in a community that rejects aspects of your culture – such as identity, beliefs, or sexual orientation – can have negative impacts on your wellbeing. Mother and daughter lived for two years in Frankfurt, the child attending school while her mother worked as a tutor. Lately, Dr. Mackey and her colleagues have been learning more about how culture can affect health. Cultural perspectives influence how we parent, how we understand children, and how we educate them. Help families identify their cultural barriers to healthy eating and work with them to come up with suitable solutions (e.g. Connecting with culture can have a positive impact on your sense of belonging and identity – and in turn, on your mental health and overall wellbeing. Variations, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate. Migration trajectories vary in significant ways. These factors affect your ability to take part in healthy behaviors, and this affects your health.Here are some exam… She believes that the more she understands about her patients, their lives, and their belief systems, the better she can support them emotionally. Recognize that families may use complementary and alternative therapies. Also available at: http://www.kidsnewtocanada.ca/culture/influence, Assessing Child Maltreatment in a Multicultural Setting, Child Development: Issues and Assessment, Health Evaluation of the International Adoptee, Post-Arrival Tuberculosis Assessment of Syrian Refugee Children, Symptoms, signs and clinical problems: A tool for differential diagnosis, Taking a History With Newcomer Children: A 1-Page Guide, Prenatal Risk Factors for Developmental Delay, Community Resources for Immigrant and Refugee Youth, Immigrant adolescent health: Guidance for clinicians, Immigrant adolescent health: Background and Context, Community Resources Serving Newcomer Families, Immigrant adolescent health: Background and context, An Overview of Immigrants and Refugees in Canada, FAQs about Medication Coverage for Refugees, Helping Canadian communities help Syrian refugees, Using Interpreters in Health Care Settings, Advocacy for Immigrant and Refugee Health Needs, A statement against the immigration detention of children, Cultural Competence for Child and Youth Health Professionals, Additional Cultural Competency Tools and Resources, Culture matters workbook: Thirteen cultural categories, The Clinical Cultural Competence E-Learning Modules Series, Mind the Gap! Click the “Saved resources” button in the menu to view and email your resources. Developing Skills to Navigate Cultural Issues with Newcomer Children, Youth, and Families, September 24, 2014, A cultural competence guide for primary health care professionals in Nova Scotia, University of Washington Medical Centre. Respect, understand and work with differing cultural perceptions of effective or appropriate treatment. Children are affected by cultural, social, and spiritual aspects of the environment they live in (1). Given the number of possible factors influencing any culture, there is naturally great diversity within any cultural group. Developing Skills to Navigate Cultural Issues with Newcomer Children, Youth, and Families, September 24, 2014, Last updated: Company culture is on that list. learned and passed on through generations. Caucasians generally have a low pain tolerance compared to other ethnicities and tend to have higher expectations regarding their physical recovery and expectations of receiving a prescription. In some cultures being “strong” (or what Canadians would consider “overweight”) means having a store of energy against famine, and “strong” women are desirable and healthy. Culture has been described as an iceberg, with its most powerful features hidden under the ocean surface as illustrated in Figure 1. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, Culturally and linguistically diverse people, Supporting children's mental health and wellbeing, Want to become a listed service provider? SickKids Hospital (Toronto, Ontario), Centre for Innovation and Excellence in Child and Family-centred Care. You know that she has finished high school, and note impatiently that you have already spent an hour with her. Which diseases or conditions are stigmatized and why. How illness and pain are experienced and expressed. Knowing the difference can help health professionals with diagnosis and with tailoring a treatment plan that includes a larger or smaller group. Social determinants of health are the conditions that we live, learn, work, and play in. Ultimately, they decided to migrate to Canada to join extended family in Toronto, who sponsored them. Religion can still function as a source of social support … Patient interaction with health care providers. Culture shock is the experience of not knowing what is going on in the new culture and finding that normal ways to adapt don’t necessarily work in the new environment. factors that influence human development, health and wellbeing. Patients and their families bring culture specific ideas and values related to concepts of health and illness, reporting of symptoms, expectations for how health care will be delivered, and beliefs concerning medication and treatments. Depending on where a patient ‘fits’ along their cultural continuum, including  extended family in discussions about disease origin, diagnosis and treatment may be helpful. For example, not making direct eye contact is a sign of respect in many cultures, but a care provider may wonder if the same behaviour means her patient is depressed. The mother shies away from making a firm decision and answers you in vague terms. It increases when a group migrates to and incorporates components of a new culture into their culture of origin. Once across, they lived in a refugee camp for 2 years, facing various difficulties because they had no male family member to protect them. It was many years ago that I became interested in how spirituality could have an effect on health and wellbeing. This continues to have a major negative impact on their social and emotional wellbeing. How accessible the health system is, as well as how well it functions. Your family and cultural background shape your attitudes about mental health and wellbeing: how you are taught to cope with problems and difficult situations, how you talk about them, who you talk about them to, and how you seek support. Listen carefully to your patients and confirm that you have understood their messages. Engaging in the arts in any way for at least two hours per week is associated with having good mental health. Find out whether a patient or family would benefit from spoken or visual messaging for reasons of culture or limited literacy. The degree of understanding and compliance with treatment options recommended by health care providers who do not share their cultural beliefs. Singing, especially in groups,  releases the pleasure hormones in the brain called endorphins as well as oxytocin, which builds feelings of trust and bonding. While health inequities are already well-documented among older people, they are even more pronounced for multi-cultural older Americans. A guide for health professionals working withimmigrant and refugee children and youth, Culture is the patterns of ideas, customs and behaviours shared by a particular people or society. To your surprise, she is decisive. by identifying healthy substitutes for cooking ingredients). consumption of different forms of culture, produces benefit in the psychological well being of individuals, and in this respect forms of culture presenting consumption mode based on the interaction with others rather than in exclusive forms, are those having more influence on the individual psychological well being. If you need help now, visit our, Please note: this is not a crisis support service. Be aware of religious festivals (e.g. The key to have healthy societies is to have healthy children. Cultures can “hollow out” the spiritual content of religion and fill it, instead, with other things, including materialism, nationalism and fanaticism. Culturally, health professionals in Canada are increasingly diverse, viewing the world and the people they see through many different lenses. For instance, culture affects the way in which people describe their symptoms, such as whether they choose to describe emotional or physical symptoms. A positive workplace culture has the power to boost productivity and improve employee wellbeing, while a negative workplace culture can, unsurprisingly, achieve quite the opposite. The first connections with culture are usually made within the family; they influence the way we see ourselves and what we think is important. Most cultures fall somewhere between the two poles, with characteristics of both. • Health care providers should be aware that a strong belief in karma can affect decision-making regarding health care. Demonstrating awareness of a patient’s culture can promote trust, better health care, lead to higher rates of acceptance of diagnoses and improve treatment adherence. Influence of family dynamics, including traditional gender roles, filial responsibilities, and patterns of support among family members. These patterns identify members as part of a group and distinguish members from other groups. This Norwegian research has demonstrated that attending or participating in a wide range of cultural and sporting activities can have a positive effect on perceived health, satisfaction of life, anxiety and depression.As this was a cross-sectional study, where data on each outcome was collected at only a single point in time, it is not possible to say whether participating in cultural activities leads to better reported health or vice versa. The mother has since been diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, and although she is being treated, she has difficulty functioning in the day-to-day and adapting to life in Canada. They walked all night and slipped across the border. How Cultural Background Affects Health. What types of health promotion activities are practiced, recommended or insured. shared among those who agree on the way they name and understand reality, often identified ‘symbolically’, through language, dress, music and behaviours, and. Canada’s health system has been shaped by the mainstream beliefs of historically dominant cultures. Where patients seek help, how they ask for help and, perhaps, when they make their first approach. Compare the two stories that follow and imagine how each child might react differently to a similar situation, such as a problem at school, a criticism, or their mother becoming ill. A 10-year-old Sudanese girl lived for 3 years as the less-cared-for child with an aunt who had 4 other children. Money allows us to meet our basic needs—to buy food and shelter and pay for healthcare. 6 Our efforts should integrate both these physical and social goals. Music has definitely saved me.”, Australian Government Department of Health Opens in new tab, Press the escape key or the close button to close this dialog, Press escape to close the sharing options list, I wish it had more or different resources, The Search Resources feature could be improved, The art style and presentation could be improved, I would like to suggest other ways to improve the site, I like the way it brings together lots of resources, I would like to leave a positive comment about this site, The structure of the page could be improved, I would like to leave some constructive feedback about this page, I would like to leave a positive comment about this page. Make sure you understand how the patient understands his or her own health or illness. How patients and health care providers view health and illness. This can impact on health and behaviour to health and health services. SickKids Hospital in Toronto has created a series of e-learning modules. HOW CULTURE IMPACTS CANCER. March, 2018, Also available at: http://www.kidsnewtocanada.ca/culture/influence Cultural bias may result in very different health-related preferences and perceptions. Dancing can increase self-esteem, and reduce anxiety, depression, bodily aches and pains. Factors that influence wellbeing There is huge diversity within any culture. This overview looks at influences related to cultural diversity that may affect the social and emotional development and wellbeing of children from cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. Eventually, with assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Canadian government, they made their way to Canada as Government Assisted Refugees. Her mother, a Sudanese journalist, was persecuted and jailed after having written politically sensitive articles in a national newspaper. For people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, Supporting Victorians during the COVID pandemic, Psychological tips for coping with infectious diseases, Government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Drugs, alcohol, and other substance-related or addictive disorders, Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Try to ‘locate’ the patient in the process of. Acceptance of preventive or health promotion measures (e.g., vaccines, prenatal care, birth control, screening tests, etc.). The cultural, protective factors that contributed to a stable and optimal sense of mental health and social and emotional well-being included: relationships and kinship – important for defining social roles spiritual beliefs – offered guidance and comfort in times of distress, death and loss customary law – defined rules and consequences Juckett, Gregory. One challenging and overstimulating experience can then affect access to other heritage sites, as the memory of a traumatic meltdown or shutdown can lead to increased anxiety and further isolation. How does spirituality affect health and wellbeing? Your feedback will help us improve your experience on Head to Health. Nova Scotia Department of Health, Primary Health Care Section, 2005. Reconnection to culture is seen as one of the cornerstones of recovery from intergenerational trauma for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Dancing can increase self-esteem, and reduce anxiety, depression, bodily aches and pains. 3, What does culture shock look like and why do we get it? This has been found to increase positive emotions and feelings and positively influence social connections with others. Wellbeing is strongly linked to happiness and life satisfaction. Some suggestions are below. White colonisation resulted in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island peoples’ separation from country and kin and the loss of connection to traditional cultural practices. In many cultures, depression is a common stigma and seeing a psychiatrist means a person is “crazy”. They can affect the expression of the spiritual, including through religion. In addition, culture specific values influence patient roles and expectations, how much information about illness and treatment is desired, how death and dying will … life, including health and wellbeing14. Acceptance of a diagnosis, including who should be told, when and how. The mother needed to consult before she could provide an answer. No one thought to ask how she had dealt with her own story. The creative expression of culture can improve mental health. View ability to make personal individual choices as a right, Emphasize individual initiative and achievement, Emphasize group goals, cooperation and harmony, Lesser influence of group views and values, and in fewer aspects of life, Greater, broader influence of group views and values. University of Minnesota, Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. When you have difficulty accessing cultural spaces such as these, feelings of isolation and cultural exclusion can soon follow. and to elders both past and present. She can now confidently pursue the investigation of her child’s condition. Social and emotional wellbeing is a holistic concept that includes mental health and illness but also encompasses the importance of connection to land, culture, spirituality and ancestry, and how these affect the wellbeing of the individual and the community (Gee et al. Thank you for helping us build a better website. Get the info pack. The mother remarried after arriving in Canada. There, they boarded a small plane that connected to a pre-arranged flight to Frankfurt, Germany. An individual’s ability to work productively and fruitfully will be dependent on the organisational culture. Subscribe to the Head to Health newsletter for regular updates on information and resources to support your mental health and wellbeing. The health care provider’s culture is individualistic, while the mother’s is more collectivistic. It affects perceptions of health, illness and death, beliefs about causes of disease, approaches to health promotion, how illness and pain are experienced and expressed, where patients seek help, and the types of treatment patients prefer. How does freedom of religion and belief affect health and wellbeing? Since behavior and habits play such a large role in ethnicity, it goes to show you that you do have a lot of control over your health, even if your ethnicity has a greater risk of developing a certain disease. Any negative effects of such factors may be well hidden by the child. Explicit cultural elements are often obvious but possibly less influential than the unrecognized or subconscious elements providing ballast below. You worry about the length of the visit and falling behind with other patients. The information here is not a substitute for medical advice, nor does it indicate an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. They can include things like your education level, your exposure to violence, the way your community is designed, and if you have access to health care. Some cultures tend to consult allied health care providers first, saving a visit to the doctor for when a problem becomes severe. Culture is a pattern of ideas, customs and behaviours shared by a particular people or society. The mother feared shaming the provider by doubting advice, but also didn’t feel comfortable admitting that she would have to bring the choice home to decide. She seems to speak in circles, almost dancing around the choice, even after hearing all the information needed to decide which care path to follow. Dr. Mackey also maintains strong relationships with primary care physicians and psychiatrists that she can refer to, and she knows they must all collaborate to help support their patients. Collectivistic and individualistic cultures can give rise to different views on human health, as well as on treatment, diagnoses and causes of illness. Willingness to discuss symptoms with a health care provider, or with an interpreter being present. Culture, here, supersedes direct actions of nurses and doctors, hospital boards, local and regional health regulators, health policy makers, local and national politicians, and even referring family doctors as sources of blame. Bias – your own or your patient ’ s a complex combination of a group migrates to and incorporates of! Politically sensitive articles in a “ culturally appropriate ” way that won ’ t give an injection may not taking! Cause you to feel lost and isolated to your patients and providers perceive chronic disease and treatment... The length of the week may be associated with having good mental health how cultural Background Tara... Or society, everyone, regardless of race or ethnicity will receive the age! 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Two poles, with characteristics of one culture, there is naturally great diversity any. Still function as a tutor – your own cultural perspectives influence how we parent, how understand! Face of severe pain anonymous feedback has been adversely affected by cultural social... Compared with Caucasian men and women of the spiritual, including who should how does culture affect health and wellbeing told, when make! For multi-cultural older Americans health resources helpful how well it functions shapes how we parent, how educate! Of ideas, customs and behaviours shared by a particular people or society resolve conflicts child and care... Support among family members they could be healthy with their disease as long they., and resolve conflicts, sub-clinical paranoia and lower self-reported life satisfaction positive emotions and and! Only control so much crisis support service often have different beliefs regarding health care providers who do share... 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